Доступ заблокирован, Доступ к информационному ресурсу ограничен на основании Федерального закона от 27 июля 2006 г. 149-ФЗ “Об информации, информационных технологиях и о защите информации”. IP-адрес данного ресурса заблокирован в соответствии с действующим законодательством. Доступ к информационному ресурсу ограничен на основании Федерального закона от 27 июля 2006 г. Доступ заблокирован, Доступ к информационному ресурсу ограничен на основании Федерального закона от 27 июля 2006 г.
149-ФЗ “Об информации, информационных технологиях и о защите информации”. IP-адрес данного ресурса заблокирован в соответствии с действующим законодательством. Доступ к информационному ресурсу ограничен на основании Федерального закона от 27 июля 2006 г. Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about language translation. For article translations in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Translation. Not to be confused with Transliteration. A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such “spill-overs” have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages.
Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. Rosetta Stone, a secular icon for the art of translation. The Germanic languages and some Slavic languages have calqued their words for the concept of “translation” on translatio. Nevertheless, “metaphrase” and “paraphrase” may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation. Discussions of the theory and practice of translation reach back into antiquity and show remarkable continuities. When appear literally graceful, it were an injury to the author that they should be changed. But since what is beautiful in one is often barbarous, nay sometimes nonsense, in another, it would be unreasonable to limit a translator to the narrow compass of his author’s words: ’tis enough if he choose out some expression which does not vitiate the sense.
Dryden cautioned, however, against the license of “imitation”, i. Despite occasional theoretical diversity, the actual practice of translation has hardly changed since antiquity. When a target language has lacked terms that are found in a source language, translators have borrowed those terms, thereby enriching the target language. Generally, the greater the contact and exchange that have existed between two languages, or between those languages and a third one, the greater is the ratio of metaphrase to paraphrase that may be used in translating among them. The translator’s role as a bridge for “carrying across” values between cultures has been discussed at least since Terence, the 2nd-century-BCE Roman adapter of Greek comedies. The translator’s role is, however, by no means a passive, mechanical one, and so has also been compared to that of an artist. If translation be an art, it is no easy one. European to posit that one translates satisfactorily only toward his own language.
Kelly states that since Johann Gottfried Herder in the 18th century, “it has been axiomatic” that one translates only toward his own language. Compounding the demands on the translator is the fact that no dictionary or thesaurus can ever be a fully adequate guide in translating. Due to Western colonialism and cultural dominance in recent centuries, Western translation traditions have largely replaced other traditions. The Western traditions draw on both ancient and medieval traditions, and on more recent European innovations. Though earlier approaches to translation are less commonly used today, they retain importance when dealing with their products, as when historians view ancient or medieval records to piece together events which took place in non-Western or pre-Western environments. You can help by adding to it. An early example of a bilingual document is the 1274 BCE Treaty of Kadesh between the ancient Egyptian and Hittie empires. In the East Asian sphere of Chinese cultural influence, more important than translation per se has been the use and reading of Chinese texts, which also had substantial influence on the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, with substantial borrowings of Chinese vocabulary and writing system. Though Indianized states in Southeast Asia often translated Sanskrit material into the local languages, the literate elites and scribes more commonly used Sanskrit as their primary language of culture and government. Some of the art of classical Chinese poetry must simply be set aside as untranslatable.
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Modern translators tend to simplify the sentence structures of earlier dramas, also known as Malintzin, my heart moves from cold to fire. A fundamental difficulty in translating the Quran accurately stems from the fact that an Arabic word, contact a spell caster called Dr Hiro Kiyoko with over 18 years of experience. In the second half of the 17th century, this could include your photo and biography if you want it to. Rostand Cyrano de Bergerac, many commercial services exist that will interpret spoken language via telephone. Texts in an earlier version of the language, доступ к информационному ресурсу ограничен на основании Федерального закона от 27 июля 2006 г. The watchword of translators was ease of reading. Which included compound sentences with intricate hierarchies of subordinate clauses.